Dr. Navinchandra K. Shah & Prof. Pankaj N. Jain

Thermonuclear Chain Reaction (TNCR) in the stellar bodies is only possible under influence of Stellar Repulsive Force. TNCR is not possible under Gravitational influence. Thus, the Sun and Stars are under TNCR because they exert force of Repulsion, while planetary bodies are free from TNCR because these bodies exert force of Gravitation. Stellar TNCR is not Fusion Reaction - it is RECS Reaction

1) According to the Fundamental Law of Universe (FLU). Physical universe is constituted by two kinds of matters: STELLAR (The Sun & Stars) and NON-STELLAR (Planetary state). Basic difference between two matters is exertion of forces. Stellar bodies exert force of Repulsion. Non-Stellar bodies exert force of Gravitation. Stellar Repulsion Force (SRF) is natural, independent and universal force as the force of Gravitation. Suppose, the Sun and Stars started exerting Gravitational force, then, soon the TNCR will turn neutral and Stars will be turned into planetary body. Accordingly, suppose TNCR will start in planetary body by exertion of Repulsion force, Planets will be turned into Stars. However, such changes are impossible in nature.

2) TNCR is linked with SRF. TNCR is owing to SRF and SRF is owing to TNCR. Thus is mutually interlinked phenomenon. Stellar mass is converted into energy under TNCR. 50% of that liberated energy is in form of light and heat and 50% is in form of REPULSIVE FORCE. About half the ratio of SRF radiated in outer space, which repels external bodies, and remain half ratio keep TNCR in continuity. Without SRF the Nuclear Furnace of Stars not “burns”. SRF is fuel and also result.

3) RACS NUCLEAR REACTION (RNR) means RETROGRADE ATOMIC CONVERSION in STELLAR bodies (RACS). According to FLU, the stellar bodies are not constituted by condensed gases but constituted by heavy radioactive dense elements. In RNR, heavy atoms are gradually loosing their mass in form of electrons, protons and neutrons. Thus, as time passes, heavy atom is converted into light atom and onward into helium and then in form of hydrogen i.e., for example take a Uranium atom. Under RNR, the Uranium atom (U) will be turned into Radium (Ra) at 4th step, into Gold (Au) at 13th step, into Silver at 45th step, into Iron at 66th step, into Oxygen at 84th step, into Helium at 90th step and into Hydrogen at 91st step. This is fall of Atomic mass. With every retrograde step, liberated mass in the form of electrons, protons and neutrons are converted into energy of light, heat and Repulsive waves. The force that causes the atom to liberate its mass is Neutronic Repulsive Force (refer Paper “Neutron exert force of Repulsion” by P.N. Jain). Neutronic Repulsive Force (NRF) causes TNCR by which SRF is liberated. Liberated SRF breached atomic equilibrium of stellar mass by fusing neutrons with excessive Repulsive force and activated Neutrons cause RACS Reaction.

4) RACS Reaction in the Stars remains till entire mass is converted into energy i.e., till entire stellar mass annihilated into energy. TNCR will remain in action.

5) TNCR is started from the surface of the Sun and Stars, but not from the center as believed today. Therefore, upper region is more hotter than inner region of the Sun and Stars. Again, TNCR is not the result of great temperature but great temperature is the result of TNCR. Sunspot proves inner region of the stellar body is cooler than upper surface because TNCR starts from the surface, not from the center.

6) Because all heavy radioactive elements of the Sun and Stars in last stage is converted into Helium and Hydrogen. Therefore, atmosphere of the Stars is filled with these gases and in spectroscopic study of the Stars, only these gases are observed. This does not mean that Stars are constituted by thin gaseous elements as believed today.

7) According to RNR, whole Stellar Universe will be disappeared in the form of light, heat, Repulsive waves and plasma state nebular particles. Present concept that Stars in their last stages turned into white Dwarf owing to consumption of nuclear fuel and then condensed into neutron star and then into Black hole is not reality. If this would be the reality, then 90% of the sky would be flooded with Neutron Stars and Black holes. While today in reality, we have not possible to detect any single such body in the entire Universe.

A) TNCR or RNR is owing to STELLAR REPULSIVE FORCE because the Sun and Stars exert force of Repulsion.

B) Stars are constituted by heavy radioactive elements as the major ratio.

C) RNR starts from the surface of the Sun and Stars but not from the center.

D) RNR continues till entire mass of the Star annihilated into energy.

E) RNR is very slow and steady process, which keeps Stars luminous and hot for billions of years.

F) RNR is not possible under Gravitational influence. Therefore, Planets are free from these nuclear reactions.

CRITICS: TNCR as per present Astrophysics based on Newton’s Law of Gravitation:
1) Today it is believed that owing to “heavy gravitational pressure” HGP at the center of the Stars and owing to great temperature of millions of degrees at the center, thermonuclear reactions in the Stars started from the center.

2) This liberated energy moved from center towards the surface of the Stars.

3) Stars are constituted by hydrogen and helium in major ratio (94%).

4) Stars contracts as nuclear reactions ceases and turned into pale dense white dwarf and onward into Neutron Stars and Black hole.

5) It is conversion of hydrogen into helium (fusion), under which a fraction of mass escaped and turned into energy. This is Newtonian concept for TNCR in Stars.

1) When we move from surface towards center of the planet earth, gravitational force that is G-intensity go on reducing and at the center it turns into nearly zero. Therefore, HGP at center is Science fiction – not Science.

2) When TNCR assumed at the center, then, soon as TNCR starts, entire mass of the star would be exploded and dispersed in space. Then, there would be no existence of anybody to be titled as Stars. Again, in Newtonian Concept (NC), Stars considered as gaseous body. How thin gaseous body could survive when TNCR started from the center? How gaseous body survives in millions of degrees of temperature? These factors are unscientific and illusive.

3) When hydrogen is converted into helium, nuclear chain reaction starts? TNCR is not possible with conversion of gases from one form to another.

4) Gravitational force is not the force, which could function nuclear reaction. Of course, this force could stop such reactions owing to its pro-center influence.

5) Because the radiation observed from the Stars passes from the thick atmosphere of the Stars, in the spectrum of Stars, we observe gaseous elements. Atmosphere is filled with gaseous elements, naturally. This does not mean that physical constitution of Stars is only gaseous. The earth atmosphere is “constituted” by gaseous this does not mean that earth is nothing but condensed gaseous body.

6) As SRF is constantly “generated” by RNR and it is the force again which keep RNR in continuity, so there is no “End” of TNCR till whole star lost its existence. Thus fading star concept of Astrophysics, which gives birth to Neutron Stars and Black holes is not scientific reality. Until the world will not accept the existence of Stellar Repulsion Force – there will be no end of problems and confusion and illusive concepts.